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Vertigo is a feeling of spinning when a person is standing still. It can be caused by many different health problems.
The inner ear and nerves sense the position of a person's head and body. Vertigo can happen when there are problems with these nerves and structures. It may also be due to problems in the brain, but this is not as common.
The two main types of vertigo are:
Peripheral vertigo is common and caused by problems with the inner ear. Causes may be:
- Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)
- Meniere disease
- Perilymphatic fistula—an abnormal canal or connection in the inner ear
- Ototoxic medicines that disrupt the inner ear's ability to balance
- Acoustic neuroma—a benign tumor of the nerve that helps with hearing and balance
- Poor blood flow
- Otosclerosis—a bony growth near the middle ear
Central vertigo is less common but more serious. It happens due to changes in the brainstem or the cerebellum. These parts of the brain control balance. Changes can be caused by:
- Damage to the brain from diseases such as multiple sclerosis, stroke, or from tumors
- Migraine headaches
- Nervous system problems, such as Parkinson disease or multiple sclerosis
- Too much exposure to alcohol, heavy industrial metals, or poisons
The conditions above will raise a person's risk of vertigo.
Problems may be:
- Sensation of rotation
- Illusion of movement
- Feeling of being pulled in one direction
- Feeling of being off-balance
Vertigo is not the same as feeling lightheaded. A person who is lightheaded does not have a feeling of movement.
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. Tests to look for a cause may include:
- Blood tests
- Hearing and vision tests
- Head maneuvers—the doctor will move a person's head to help to ease symptoms
- Blood pressure test, both lying down and standing up
- Electronystagmogram (ENG)—to check for nystagmus, an abnormal eye movement
- MRI scan
- Rotatory chair test
- Brainstem auditory evoked potential studies (BAEPS or BAERs)—to check the function of the brain auditory nerve and brain stem
Some lifestyle changes can help manage vertigo, such as using a cane to help with balance. Treating the cause may also stop the vertigo.
Some medicines that cause vertigo may need to be stopped or changed. Medicines that may ease or stop symptoms are:
There are no current guidelines to prevent vertigo.
- Dizziness and vertigo. The Merck Manual Professional Edition. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/ear,-nose,-and-throat-disorders/approach-to-the-patient-with-ear-problems/dizziness-and-vertigo?query=vertigo. Updated March 2019. Accessed April 8, 2020.
- Dizziness—differential diagnosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/approach-to/dizziness-in-adults-approach-to-the-patient . Accessed April 8, 2020.
- Living with a vestibular disorder. Vestibular Disorders Association website. Available at: https://vestibular.org/living-vestibular-disorder/everyday-challenges. Accessed April 8, 2020.
- Muncie HL, Sirmans SM, et al. Dizziness: Approach to Evaluation and Management. Am Fam Physician. 2017 Feb 1;95(3):154-162.