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Esophageal Cancer

Esophageal cancer is treated in our Thoracic Oncology Program (TOP) within the Upstate Cancer Center.

For more information or answers to your questions about our Cancer Care, please call 315 464-HOPE (4673) to speak with an Upstate Cancer Center representative.

Related Media: Upper GI Endoscopy


The esophagus is the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. Esophageal cancer (EC) is cancer that starts in this tube.

There are two main types of EC:

  • Squamous cell cancer—from the cells that line the upper part of the esophagus
  • Adenocarcinoma—from the cells where the esophagus meets the stomach
Esophageal Cancer
Esophageal cancer
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Cancer is when cells in the body split without control or order. These cells go on to form a growth or tumor. The term cancer refers to harmful growths. These growths attack nearby tissues. They also spread to other parts of the body. It is not clear exactly what causes these problems. It’s likely a mix of genes and the environment.

The changes may be caused by irritants such as:

  • Tobacco
  • Alcohol
  • Stomach acid from acid reflux

Risk Factors

EC is more common in men. It's also more common in people aged 50 years and older.

Your chances for EC are also higher for:


Symptoms may not happen until later. When symptoms happen, EC may cause:

  • Trouble swallowing
  • Weight loss
  • Lack of hunger
  • Heartburn
  • Pain from swallowing
  • Persistent cough
  • Hoarse voice


The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. Your answers and a physical exam may point to EC. You may also have:

The exam and your test results will help find out the stage of cancer you have. Staging guides your treatment plan. EC is staged from 0-4. Stage 0 is a very localized cancer. Stage 4 is a spread to other parts of the body.


Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Options are based on the stage of your EC. You may have one or more of the following:


Surgery may be needed. It may be the only treatment, or it may be done in combination with radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Types include:

  • Esophagectomy—removes part or all of the esophagus using a scope or open incision
  • Endoscopic ablation—to remove cancer using a laser

Radiation Therapy

Radiation kills cancer cells and shrink tumors. It does not cure EC. It offers brief relief of symptoms. It may also shrink the tumor. It used with chemotherapy. It may also be done after an esophagectomy.

It may be:

  • External—radiation directed at the esophagus from a source outside the body
  • Internal—radioactive materials are placed into the esophagus in or near the cancer cells


Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. It may be given in many forms. It may given by mouth, shots, or IV. The drugs enter the bloodstream and travel throughout the body.

Chemotherapy alone will not cure EC. It is only used when the cancer has spread and can’t be cured. It is used to help shrink the tumor, ease pain, or control nausea.

Photodynamic Therapy

A mix of drugs and special lights are used to try to kill cancer cells. The cells absorb the medicine. The lights stimulate the medicine to kill the cells.

This therapy may not be useful in some people.


To help lower your chances of EC:

  • Don't smoke or use other tobacco products.
  • If you smoke, talk to your doctor about ways to quit .
  • Limit alcohol. This means 2 drinks or less a day for men and 1 drink or less a day for women.
  • Eat a healthful diet. Eat fruits and vegetables , foods that are high in fiber. Limit dairy, processed foods, and red meat.
  • Exercise regularly—Aim for 30 minutes of activity on most days of the week.
  • Get medical treatment for GERD or Barrett esophagus.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.

This type of cancer is often found in later stages. People who have risk factors, especially GERD or Barrett esophagus, should talk to their doctor about screening tests. Screening tests will look for cancer before symptoms appear.


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Library resources related to esophageal cancer.

For more information:

Internet Links
The detailed guide includes descriptions of the causes, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, staging, treatments, and what's new in esophagus cancer research.
Links to information from the National Cancer Institute on treatment, clinical trials, prevention, genetics, causes, cancer research, and screening.
A detailed description of esophageal cancer from the Mayo Clinic, including symptoms, risk factors, causes, treatments, and prevention.
Link to a search of the MedlinePlus database for health information on esophageal cancer. MedlinePlus links are managed by medical librarians at the National Library of Medicine.
An electronic booklet about medical care for esophageal cancer from the National Cancer Institute. The booklet includes information on risk factors, diagnosis, staging, treatment, follow-up care, and cancer research.