Male Infertility

Up to 15% of couples will experience difficulties conceiving a child. Since infertility is both common and complex, the best approach is to screen both the male and female for conditions best treated with medicine or even, today’s high-tech procedures. Unfortunately, a male-based reason for the infertility can be diagnosed in up to half of couples—30% of couples will have only a male-factor, while the other 20% will be diagnosed with both a male and female factor.

Male factors include but are not limited to:

  1. Suboptimal semen parameters
    1. Hormonal causes
    2. Structural blockages
    3. Testicular failure
    4. Immunological disorder
    5. Retrograde ejaculation
  2. Dilated scrotal veins called varicoceles
  3. Chromosome/Genetic causes
  4. Medication side effects
  5. Cancer

How is male infertility diagnosed?

The process begins with a careful history and physical examination, complemented with a semen analysis and blood work. Results will suggest a roadmap to optimize reproductive potential.


photo of Upstate Specialty Services at Harrison Center
Upstate Urology at 550 Harrison
Upstate Specialty Services at Harrison Center
Map & directions
Suite N
550 Harrison Street, Syracuse, NY 13202
Phone: 315 464-1500
Fax: 315 464-6117
Office Hours: 7:30am-4:30pm

photo of Upstate University Hospital - Community Campus
Upstate Urology at Community
Upstate University Hospital - Community Campus
Map & directions
4900 Broad Road, Syracuse, NY 13215
Phone: 315 492-3700
Fax: 315 492-3596
Office Hours: 8:30 am to 4:30 pm

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Upstate Urology - Rome
Rome Medical Practice
Map & directions
Suite 300
267 Hill Rd, Rome, NY 13440
Phone: 315 356-7390
Fax: 315 356-7393


Zahi N Makhuli, MD
Zahi N Makhuli, MD
315 464-1500

Education & Fellowships

  • Residency: University Hospital, SUNY Health Science Center at Syracuse, 1966
  • Residency: St. Raphaels Hospital, 1963
  • MD: American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon, 1960



Research Interests

  • General urology; male infertility; impotence; stone disease; transplantation; infections; andrology


  • American Medical Association
  • American Urological Association (AUA)
  • American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS)

J C Trussell, MD
J C Trussell, MD
315 464-1500

Education & Fellowships

  • Internship: Balboa Naval Hospital
  • Residency: SUNY Upstate Medical University
  • MD: Temple University School of Medicine, 1992


Urology; Andropause; Erectile Dysfunction; Infertility; Nephrolithiasis (Kidney Stones); Peyronie's Disease; more

Clinical Interests

  • Andrology; Erectile Dysfunction; Peyronie's Disease; Male Infertility


  • American Urological Association (AUA)