# Footnotes

^{1}"Submersion" means that values given are for submersion in a hemispherical semi-infinite cloud of airborne material.^{2}These radionuclides have radiological half-lives of less than 2 hours. The total effective dose equivalent received during operations with these radionuclides might include a significant contribution from external exposure. The DAC values for all radionuclides, other than those designated Class "Submersion," are based upon the committed effective dose equivalent due to the intake of the radionuclide into the body and do NOT include potentially significant contributions to dose equivalent from external exposures. The licensee may substitute 1E-7 µCi/ml for the listed DAC to account for the submersion dose prospectively, but should use individual monitoring devices or other radiation measuring instruments that measure external exposure to demonstrate compliance with the limits. (See § 16.6(c)).-
^{3}For soluble mixtures of U-238, U-234, and U-235 in air, chemical toxicity may be the limiting factor (see § 16.6(a)(5)). If the percent by weight (enrichment) of U-235 is not greater than 5, the concentration value for a 40-hour workweek is 0.2 milligrams uranium per cubic meter of air average. For any enrichment, the product of the average concentration and time of exposure during a 40-hour workweek shall not exceed 8E-3 (SA) µCi-hr/ml, where SA is the specific activity of the uranium inhaled. The specific activity for natural uranium is 6.77E-7 curies per gram U. The specific activity for other mixtures of U-238, U-235, and U-234, if not known, shall be:SA = 3.6E-7 curies/gram U U-depleted

SA = [0.4 + 0.38 (enrichment) + 0.0034 (enrichment)^{2}] E-6 , enrichment >= 0.72where enrichment is the percentage by weight of U-235, expressed as percent.

## Note

- If the identity of each radionuclide in a mixture is known but the concentration of one or more of the radionuclides in the mixture is not known, the DAC for the mixture shall be the most restrictive DAC of any radionuclide in the mixture.
- If the identity of each radionuclide in the mixture is not known, but it is known that certain radionuclides specified in this appendix are not present in the mixture, the inhalation ALI, DAC, and effluent and sewage concentrations for the mixture are the lowest values specified in this appendix for any radionuclide that is not known to be absent from the mixture; or:
**Table 1****Occupational Values****Table 2**

Effluent Concentrations**Table 3**

Releases to Sewers**Col.****1 Oral Ingestion ALI (µCi)****Col.****2****Col.****3****Col.****1**

Air (µCi/ml)**Col.****2**

Water (µCi/ml)**Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml)****Inhalation****Atonic****No.****Radionuclide****Class****ALI (µCi)****DAC (µCi/ml)**If it is known that Ac-227-D and Cm-250-W are not present - 7E-4 3E-13 - - - If, in addition, it is known that Ac-227-W,Y, Th-229-W,Y, Th-230-W, Th-232-W,Y, Pa-231-W,Y, Np-237-W, Pu-239-W, Pu-240-W, Pu-242-W, Am-241-W, Am-242m-W, Am-243-W, Cm-245-W, Cm-246-W, Cm-247-W, Cm-248-W, Bk-247-W, Cf-249-W, and Cf-251-W are not present - 7E-3 3E-12 - - - If, in addition, it is known that Sm-146-W, Sm-147-W, Gd-148-D,W, Gd-152-D,W, Th-228-W,Y, Th-230-Y, U-232-Y, U-233-Y, U-234-Y, U-235-Y, U-236-Y, U-238-Y, Np-236-W, Pu-236-W,Y, Pu-238-W,Y, Pu-239-Y, Pu-240-Y, Pu-242-Y, Pu-244-W,Y, Cm-243-W, Cm-244-W, Cf-248-W, Cf-249-Y, Cf-250-W,Y, Cf-251-Y, Cf-252-W,Y, and Cf-254-W,Y are not present - 7E-2 3E-11 - - - If, in addition, it is known that Pb-210-D, Bi-210m-W, Po-210-D,W, Ra-223-W, Ra-225-W, Ra-226-W, Ac-225-D,W,Y, Th-227-W,Y, U-230-D,W,Y, U-232-D,W, Pu-241-W, Cm-240-W, Cm-242-W, Cf-248-Y, Es-254-W, Fm-257-W, and Md-258-W are not present - 7E-1 3E-10 - - - If, in addition, it is known that Si-32-Y, Ti-44-Y, Fe-60-D, Sr-90-Y, Zr-93-D, Cd-113m-D, Cd-113-D, In-115-D,W, La-138-D, Lu-176-W, Hf-178m-D,W, Hf-182-D,W, Bi-210m-D, Ra-224-W, Ra-228-W, Ac-226-D,W,Y, Pa-230-W,Y, U-233-D,W, U-234-D,W, U-235-D,W, U-236-D,W, U-238-D,W, Pu-241-Y, Bk-249-W, Cf-253-W,Y, and Es-253-W are not present - 7E+0 3E-9 - - - If it is known that Ac-227-D,W,Y, Th-229-W,Y, Th-232-W,Y, Pa-231-W,Y, Cm-248-W, and Cm-250-W are not present - - - 1E-14 - - If, in addition, it is known that Sm-146-W, Gd-148-D,W, Gd-152-D, Th-228-W,Y, Th-230-W,Y, U-232-Y, U-233-Y, U-234-Y, U-235-Y, U-236-Y, U-238-Y, U-Nat-Y, Np-236-W, Np-237-W, Pu-236-W,Y, Pu-238-W,Y, Pu-239-W,Y, Pu-240-W,Y, Pu-242-W,Y, Pu-244-W,Y, Am-241-W, Am-242m-W, Am-243-W, Cm-243-W, Cm-244-W, Cm-245-W, Cm-246-W, Cm-247-W, Bk-247-W, Cf-249-W,Y, Cf-250-W,Y, Cf-251-W,Y, Cf-252-W,Y, and Cf-254-W,Y are not present - - - 1E-13 - - If, in addition, it is known that Sm-147-W, Gd-152-W, Pb-210-D, Bi-210m-W, Po-210-D,W, Ra-223-W, Ra-225-W, Ra-226-W, Ac-225-D,W,Y, Th-227-W,Y, U-230-D,W,Y, U-232-D,W, U-Nat-W, Pu-241-W, Cm-240-W, Cm-242-W, Cf-248-W,Y, Es-254-W, Fm-257-W, and Md-258-W are not present - - - 1E-12 - If, in addition it is known that Fe-60, Sr-90, Cd-113m, Cd-113, In-115, I-129, Cs-134, Sm-145, Sm-147, Gd-148, Gd-152, Hg-194 (organic), Bi-210m, Ra-223, Ra-224, Ra-225, Ac-225, Th-228, Th-230, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, U-Nat, Cm-242, Cf-248, Es-254, Fm-257, and Md-258 are not present - - - - 1E-6 1E-5 - If a mixture of radionuclides consists of uranium and its daughters in ore dust (10 µm AMAD particle distribution assumed) prior to chemical separation of the uranium from the ore, the following values may beused for the DAC of the mixture: 6E-11 µCi of gross alpha activity from uranium-238, uranium-234, thorium-230, and radium-226 per milliliter of air; 3E-11 µCi of natural uranium per milliliter of air; or 45 micrograms of natural uranium per cubic meter of air.
- If the identity and concentration of each radionuclide in a mixture are known, the limiting values should be derived as follows: determine, for each radionuclide in the mixture, the ratio between the concentration present in the mixture and the concentration otherwise established in Appendix 16-C for the specific radionuclide when not in a mixture. The sum of such ratios for all of the radionuclides in the mixture may not exceed "1" (i.e., "unity").
Example: If radionuclides "A," "B," and "C" are present in concentrations C

_{A}, C_{B}, and C_{C}, and if the applicable DACs are DAC_{A}, DAC_{B}, and DAC_{C}, respectively, then the concentrations shall be limited so that the following relationship exists:C_{A}C_{B}C------- + ------- + ------- <= 1_{C}

DAC_{A}DAC_{B}DAC_{C}